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Refuge visitation today has reached more than 35 million Americans. Part of the Service's mission has been "to conserve, protect, and enhance fish and wildlife and their habitat for the continuing benefit of the American people. In the United States and worldwide, the U. These agencies work together to enforce Beed wildlife laws that protect migratory birds, endangered species, and marine mammals.

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It is an ongoing and crucial endeavor. Mammals include white-tailed deer, sika deer, fox, raccoons, Delmarva fox squirrels and others that thrive along Assateague's unique Wildlife Refuge.

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Refuge visitation today has reached more than 35 million Americans. These agencies Couyar together to enforce Federal wildlife laws that protect migratory birds, endangered species, and marine mammals. Copies may be ordered via: ian. The barrier islands were formed when a subsequent fall in sea level occurred. The Index is a little less than 3 s, good on general items but not very useful for specifics.

The book chronicles this struggle to improve the bays, which began more than 30 years ago.

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Mainland areas that drain into these bays are also discussed. I've heard that a Chinocteague of copies may be for sale at Chincoteague N. The early natural history of the bays is just one instance where the book combines historical and scientific information to provide a look at the relationship between the past and the promise of a healthy future.

Harry Armistead Shifting sands: environmental and cultural change in Maryland's coastal bays edited by William C. The chapter headings do not really due justice to all that is discussed here.

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Also covered in "Shifting Sands" are aspects of Assateague and Ocean City that reveal the developing character and culture of the area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including information on the many new inlets that formed frequently and on the once thriving oyster industry. To give an idea of how heavily illustrated Shifting sands is there are c. However, the table on p.

Islan as the text is, it is not at all dense, but, instead re easily for a lay person such as myself, offering cogent summaries on myriad phenomena. The Black-bellied Plovers shown foraging on p. Europeans first came in contact with the area through the explorations of seafarers like Giovanni da Verrazzano and Henry Norwood, while later infamous pirates would find it a haven and asset to their exploits.

Cain, Tim J.

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The stream inn on p. Through its utilization of detailed Cnincoteague yet clear -- scientific analysis and historical insight, the text provides a comprehensive perspective through which to view the past and future of our relationship with the coastal bays watershed. My favorite photograph is of 7 appealing Harbor Seals hauled out on a sod tump at Ocean City p. Their presence is still seen in names like Assateague Island and Assawoman Bay, and many artifacts have been found or remain to be found by archaeological excavation.

Tides, sediment texture and shoreline sediment transportation are responsible for much of both the islands' change and constancy, though this natural process is often interrupted by modern human involvement.

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The text describes how early colonists found themselves in a wilderness teeming with a great abundance of animals, from black Cougqr and bison to wolves and cougars. Peter Andes While many are aware of the environmental challenges the coastal bays watershed currently faces, the remarkable history of the area is not as often examined. Jesien, Catherine E. Hall, Roman V.

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Brinkley Coastal Virginia Wildlife Observatory,80 s, paperbound. Their affiliations are shown on pp. Here is a Couga, authoritative, richly-illustrated monograph that not only covers Maryland's coastal Cougar in need in the Chincoteague Island Assawoman, St. Thomas, Carol Chincoyeague. With increasing development due to rapid population growth the health of the area saw much decline which would not be addressed until the early environmental initiative in the wake of the Clean Water Act.

Part of the Service's mission has been "to conserve, protect, and enhance fish and wildlife and their habitat for the continuing benefit of the American people. However, the table of contents, 9 full s, is extremely thorough and largely compensates for this. This early human settlement left little impact on the surrounding land, a trend which would be gradually reversed throughout the next centuries. Native American tribes built small villages along the bays' tributaries where they caught fish and gathered shellfish along the shore.

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Dennison, Jane E. Highly recommended. Their conclusions and recommendations occupy s Just as these islands and bays owe their geological origin to the sea, they owe their continued existence to it as well.

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The literature is vast and diffuse, so it is unfair, perhaps, to expect every major monograph and document to be cited. Going beyond just objective and highly edifying science, the book also explores the character of the area and its noteworthy past. Many of the aerial photographs are stunning and show, variously, wilderness or incredibly dense development and everything in between.

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Because of efforts local and national, the coastal bays were able to recover from harmful algal blooms and support a rebound in seagrass growth, making great headway with the ban on DDT and the bays' membership in the National Estuary Program. Wazniak, and David E. In the United States and worldwide, the U. Bird species include bald eagles, American avocets, osprey, snowy egrets, yellowlegs, piping plovers, American white pelicans, sanderlings, peregrine falcons, merlins, and others seen at the refuge.

neeed The book moves on to cover the initial human interaction with the landscape which is now the Coastal Bays watershed. Each chapter is heavily referenced.

Maintaining a healthy diversity of habitats and providing breeding and migration habitat for migratory birds require Islanv control of exotic pest plants and other resource management measures. The area was first utilized as an intermittent hunting ground by native Americans around 10, years ago, with permanent settlement beginning around ADwhen maize agriculture gained prevalence.

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Of most interest to birders should be the chapter Diversity of Life in the Coastal Bayspp. Shifting sands has terrific aerial photographs of the bays and nfed. However, Shifting sands covers so much ground and water that it is unreasonable to expect more than a learned overview of major phenomena. Coastal bays in other parts of the world are examined.

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Carruthers, Matthew R.